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Café do Brasil - The Flavour of Brazil


Here you can find an informative and well-illustrated documentation on coffee cultivation in Brazil: 
A visit to the Coffee


 

 The coffee producing regions in Brazil

 

 
Café do Brasil - Café Aroma
Image courtesy of BSCA, Varginha, Minas Gerais, Brazil

 

 

 


Brazil is one of the main coffee producers in the world, always at the top of the list of countries that most cultivate and commercialize this highly valued bean. Brazilian coffee is a product very appreciated by specialists of this drink, due to its quality, but also for its variety of flavors and aromas. Several different regions of the country produce unique coffees with specific characteristics of their soil, climate and cultivation. Thanks to the spread of coffee cultivation in large parts of the country, many different varieties of coffee are planted in Brazil. The available cultivation area amounts to 2.4 million hectares, of which about 75% is used for the cultivation of Arabica coffee. Brazil is the second largest producer of Canephora (Robusta) coffee in the world, after Vietnam.

The main coffee producing regions in the country are: Mogiana Paulista, Sul de Minas, Cerrado de Minas, Matas de Minas, these last three are all located in the state of Minas Gerais, which alone represents 53% of the national production, as well as Bahia, Paraná, Espírito Santo and Rondônia. The cultivation of the highest quality coffees is concentrated in the regions of the South of Minas, Cerrado de Minas and Mogiana Paulista.

São Paulo
São Paulo has always been a strong name when it comes to Brazilian coffee. The state of São Paulo is one of the most traditional in the coffee cultivation. It's exclusively produced Arabica, distributed in two regions: Mogiana and Centro-Oeste Paulista, where farms with small properties alternate, which produce also specialty coffees in specific areas. São Paulo is home to the port of Santos, which drains about 2/3 of Brazil's coffee exports.

Sao Paulo - Mogiana Paulista
The north of the Federal State of São Paulo is one of the most traditional and cultural regions for coffee cultivation, with a practice that has lasted more than 200 years. It can be divided into Alta Mogiana (which has municipalities such as Franca, Patrocínio Paulista and Batatais) and Média Mogiana (Espírito Santo do Pinhal, Santo Antônio do Jardim and São João da Boa Vista). In Alta Mogiana, coffee (Arabica beans) is very fruity, with a creamy body and medium acidity, with touches of caramel, chocolate and nuts. In Média Mogiana the coffee (also Arabica) is sweet, with a creamy body, good acidity and notes of chocolate and chestnut. On sandy soils only Arabica coffee is produced here, at an altitude between 800 and 1,000 meters. Coffee is known for its distinctive body, fine aroma and natural sweetness.

  • Average altitude: 800 to 1,000 meters
  • Main varieties of Arabica grown: Mundo Novo and Catuaí
  • Cities in the growing region: Altinópolis, Batatais, Buritizal, Cajurú, Paulista Crystals, Franca, Itirapuã, Jeriquara, Mococa, Patrocínio Paulista, Boulder, Restinga, Ribeirão Corrente, Santo Antônio da Alegri, Tambaú, Tirapuã.

 

São Paulo - Ourinhos and Avaré
Another coffee producing region in São Paulo is located between the municipalities of Ourinhos and Avaré. There the beans produce elegant, citrus drinks with aromas of fresh herbs and slightly sweet.

Minas Gerais
Along with São Paulo, Minas Gerais is another state with a long tradition of coffee production. Several microregions produce beans with unique characteristics and are highly valued worldwide.

 

Direcção Sul de Minas
Direction Sul de Mines



Minas Gerais - Sul de Minas
The micro-region of the state closest to São Paulo is the largest coffee producer in Brazil and represents more than 70% of Minas Gerais production. There, climate and soils are favorable for the production of Arabica beans, which have a balanced acidity, good body, floral and citrus notes, in addition to their characteristic sweetness.

  • Main varieties of Arabica cultivated: Catuaí and Mundo Novo are predominant, but Icatú, Obatã and Catuaí Rubi are also cultivated on a larger scale.
  • Cities in the growing region: Alfenas, Alpinópolis, Andradas, Fame, Guaxupé, Itajubá, Itamogi, Muzambinho, Paraguaçu, Passos, Pouso Alegre, Santa Rita do Sapucaí, São Sebastião do Paraíso, São Tomás de Aquino, Três Corações, Três Pontas, Varginha.


Minas Gerais - Cerrado of Minas
The Cerrado of Minas encompasses municipalities located in the Northwest and Triângulo Mineiro regions, such as Patrocínio, Patos de Minas, Araxá and Araguari. The Northwest region, in fact, was the first coffee producing area in the country to earn the Denomination of Origin (DOC) for this drink. The beans produced in the region produce well-balanced coffees, with an intense aroma, delicate acidity and notes of caramel, chocolate and nuts.

 

  • Average altitude: 800m
  • Main varieties of Arabica grown: Mundo Novo and Catuaí.
  • Cities in the growing region: Araguari, Araxa, Campos Altos, Carmo Paranaíba, Coromandel, Guarda-Mor, Monte Carmelo, Patos de Minas, Sponsorship, Sacra-ment, Unaí.


Minas Gerais - Matas de Minas
In the eastern part of the state, the Matas de Minas region (with municipalities such as Diamantina, Viçosa and Araponga) Arabica coffee with special status is produced - which is why it is widely exported to destinations in Europe, Asia and North America. The beans produce a full-bodied drink, with sharp acidity, sweetness also striking, chocolate aroma and citrus flavor.

  • Main varieties of Arabica grown: Catuaí (80%), Mundo Novo, but also others.
  • Cities in the growing region: Alto Caparaó, Araponga, Caratinga, Dom Viçoso, Ervália, Luiz Burgo, Manhuaçu, São João do Manhuacu.

A small micro-region in the center of the state of Minas Gerais around the city of Capelinha is called Chapada de Minas.


Bahia
A state that began to participate in coffee production "recently" (in the 1970s), Bahia is now responsible for the production of very special beans. There are two coffee producing regions in the state: Planalto da Bahia and Cerrado da Bahia, where Arabica is grown. In the south of the state there are also areas where Conilon coffee (Robusta) is produced. Specifically in the Chapada Diamantina region, Arabica beans are produced. Due to the characteristics of its soil and climate there is developed a more full-bodied but sweet and velvety coffee, with citrus touches and long finish.
 

Bahia
Bahia
 


Bahia - Arabian Coffees (75%)

  • Average altitude: 850 meters
  • Main varieties of Arabica grown: Catuaí (95%).
  • Cities in the region of cultivation: Barreiras, Brejões, Chapada Diamantina, Ibicoara, Luis Eduardo Magal-hães, Mucugê, Piatã, Poções, Vitória da Conquista.


Bahia - Café Canephora / Conilon (25%)

  • Average altitude: 100 - 200 meters
  • Cultivated Canephora variety: Conilon Clonal (= Genetically modified Conilon variety. From 1985 to 2013, eight different Conilon varieties were developed for the state of Espírito Santo).
  • Cities in the growing region: Eunápolis, Itabela, Itama-raju, Prado.

 


Paraná
Brazil's coffee production in the Paraná region began in the 1950s, more specifically in the north of the state. The quality of the product offered is guaranteed by the strong associations and cooperatives of coffee producers in the state and, therefore, Paraná produces a bean that is highly valued in the market. This coffee is generally sweeter, with acidity and medium body, as well as notes of caramel and chocolate.

Divided by the region of Arenito Caiuá in the northwest and Norte Pioneiro in the northeast of the state, the entire region has altitudes between 400 and 900 meters. Paraná was the largest coffee producer in the country until 1975, when the so-called "black frost" destroyed all coffee plants in northern Paraná. The name comes from the fact that the sudden cold wave first gave black spots to the plants and then they died quickly. After that, many farmers in northern Paraná replaced coffee with soy and wheat. A special feature and common practice after this climatic catastrophe in Paraná is that nowadays the selective harvesting method ('picking') is used in the remaining coffee areas - this increases costs, but considerably improves the quality of coffee.

  • Average altitude: 700 meters (Arenito Caiuá: 400 meters | Norte Pioneiro / Apucarana: 900 meters)
  • Main varieties of Arabica grown: Mundo Novo and Catuaí
  • Cities in the growing region: Assai, Ibaiti, Jacarezinho, Pinhalzinho, Santo Antônio da Platina.


Espírito Santo
Espírito Santo is one of the largest coffee producers in the country, close to Minas Gerais and São Paulo. The cultivation of the beans has adapted well to the characteristics of the mountainous region and has developed a more full-bodied and complex type of coffee, with elegant and delicate acidity, but with marked sweetness. Currently, Espírito Santo is the most important region for the cultivation of Brazilian Canephora, with a share of Robusta production at a national level of around 25%. The best coffees come from the area called "Cafés de montanhas do Espírito Santo". The area of production of Arabica coffee is located in the southern part of the state, while that of Canephora coffee is more in the central part to the north.

Espírito Santo - Cafés Arabica (27%)

  • Average altitude: 700 to 1,000 meters
  • Main varieties of Arabica grown: Mundo Novo and Catuaí.
  • Cities in the growing region: Brejetuba, Iúna, Marechal Floreano, Santa Maria do Jetiba, Venda Nova do Imigrante.


Espírito Santo - Café Canephora / Conilon (73 %)

  • Average altitude: 100 to 300 meters
  • Canephora variety grown: Conilon (Canephora Conillonis).
  • Cities in the growing region: Aguia Branca, Colatina, Linhares, Nova Venecia, Bananal River, São Gabriel da Palha, São Mateus, Vila Valério.


Rondônia
The state of Rondônia is located in the northern region of the country. With an annual production of approximately 2 million bags, the state exclusively produces Conilon coffee (Robusta). Coffee growing is traditional and familiar, with small properties. The beginning of coffee cultivation in the region attracted many people to the State, who then settled in the area. Those who moved there and invested in the development of the region received from the State a title to the cultivated land and became its owners.

Currently, Rondônia is the second largest producer of Conilon in Brazil, after Espírito Santo. The cultivation of Conilon coffee takes place there in large part in small areas and lives on the dedication and manual work of the families.

The growth of plants in the region is very inconsistent and also the poor infrastructure and low technological level are not the best conditions for good coffee. The climate in the region can be very hot, it is humid and there is only a very short dry season. The average annual temperature is between 24.6° to 25.6° Celsius and the average annual precipitation is higher than 1,400 mm. 90% of coffee production in Rondônia is Canephora coffee. Only in the city of Vilhena there are some plantations of varieties of Arabica.

  • Average altitude: 50 meters
  • Canephora variety grown: Conilon variety.
  • Cities in the growing region: Cacoal, Cafelândia, Ji-Paraná, Rolim de Moura, Vale do Guaporé, Vilhena.


Fazenda Bela Vista, São Paulo, Tambaú
Bela Vista Farm, São Paulo, Tambaú



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